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Wyoming Climate Atlas
3.1 General Description
Because of its elevation, Wyoming has a relatively cool climate ranks 41st in the US withan annual average of 45.6°F (Figure 3.1). Above the 6,000 foot level, the temperature rarelyexceeds 100&def;F. The warmest parts of the state are the lower portions of the Bighorn Basin,the lower elevations of the central and northeast, and along the eastern border. The highestrecorded temperature is 116°F on July 12, 1900 at Bitter Creek in Sweetwater County. Theaverage maximum temperature at Basin in July is 92°F. For most of the state, the meanmaximum temperatures in July range between 85°F and 95°F. With increasing elevation,average values drop rapidly (5.5°F per 1,000 feet). A few places in the mountains at aboutthe 9,000 foot level have average maximums in July close to 70°F. Summer nights are almostinvariably cool even though daytime readings may be quite high at times. For most placesaway from the mountains the mean minimum temperature in July ranges from 50°F to 60°F. Of course the mountains and high valleys are much cooler with average lows in the middleof the summer in the 30s and 40s with occasional drops to below freezing.
In the wintertime, it is characteristic to have rapid and frequent changes between mild andcold spells. Usually there are up to 10 cold waves that hit the state but frequently lessthan half that number for any one location in Wyoming. The majority of cold waves move southwardon the east side of the Divide. Sometimes only the northeast part of the state is affected bythe cold air as it slides eastward over the plains. Many of the cold waves are not accompanied by enough snow to cause severe conditions. However, blowing snow can severly reduce visibility.In January, generally the coldest month, minimum temperatures range mostly from 5°F to 10°F. In the western valleys mean values go down to about -5°F. The record low for the state was originally -66°F observed February 9, 1933 in Yellowstone Park. This record, however, is under review as the observations recorded for the Riverside station very likely were made just across the border in Montana in 1933. -63F at Moran 5WNW is the next likely contender.
To illustrate winter temperature extremes, figure 3.0 shows the averagenumber of days per season based on an average of 28 weather stationsacross Wyoming for 55 winter seasons from 1948-9. By definition, inthis study an extreme temperature that equals or exceeds two standarddeviations based on the 55 winter average daily maximum and minimumtemperatures was used. Linear trend lines show that winter extreme colddays have been diminishing from just over 4.2 days per winter to 3.2days while extreme warm days in winter have increased from just over oneday every two winters to about 1.4 days every two winters. Theindividual winter rankings from most warm and cold extreme number ofdays to least is shown in Table 3.1. While the average number ofextreme maxima seasonal events varied from 2.6 days or less (i.e.,1980-1, 1994-5), extreme minima events were as high as nearly 13 days onaverage in 1978-9 to nearly no events in 1982-3, 1966-7, and 1999-2000. In Table 3.2, Torrington, Wheatland, Newcastle, Phillips, and Laramie(all eastern cities) have been trending towards more extreme cold dayssince 1948-9 while the remainder of the stations listed has shown adecreasing trend for the number of extreme cold days. The " * " forMoran shows the greatest decreasing trend of -4.5 days over 55 winterseasons. This exception can be explained in part since during the firstwinter of the study, there were 21 days of extreme cold. If there wereabout half that number, the trend would be -3.4 days while if there wereno extreme cold days, the trend would be only -2.3 days. Thus cautionshould always be used when reviewing trends since the start and endpoints can cause exaggerated and skewed results. The maximum number ofdays of extreme temperatures during the 55 winter seasons is listed byseason if two or fewer seasons had the same maximum number of days.
Figure 3.0. Wyoming Winter Extremes (temperatures >=ABS(2sd))
Table 3.1. Wyoming winter season average days when daily max and mintemps >=ABS(2sd)
Table 3.2. Wyoming winter cold & warm waves (>ABS(2sd))
During warm spells in the winter, nighttime temperatures frequently remain above freezing. Chinooks, warm downslope winds, are common along the eastern slopes.
Numerous valleys provide ideal pockets for the collection of cold air drainage at night. Protective mountain ranges prevent the wind from stirring the air, and the colder, heavier airsettles into the valleys often resulting in readings well below 0°F. It is common to havetemperatures in the valleys considerably lower than on the nearby mountainside. Big Piney,in the Green River Valley, is such a location.
Mean January temperatures in the BighornBasin show the variation between the lower and upper parts of the valley. At Worland and Basin in the lower portion of the Bighorn Basin, not far from the 4,000-foot level, the January mean minimum temperature is 0°F, while Cody, close to 5,000feet on the west side of the valley, has a January mean minimum of 11°F. January hasoccasional mild periods when maximum readings will reach the 50s °F; however, wintersare usually long and cold.
Figure 3.1. Annual average temperature in Wyoming (PRISM)
Discussion about temperature records is always of interest to the general public or specialinterest groups. Many a bet has been waged during coffee breaks and many are surprisedby the answers. For example, Wyoming has experienced a temperature span of over 180°Fbetween its all time highest and lowest readings (Table 3.A. and Table 3.B.).
Figure 3.2. Average number of days each year with temperatures above 90°F in Wyoming (PRISM, 1961-90)
Figure 3.3. Average number of days each year with temperatures of 32° F or lower in Wyoming (PRISM, 1961-90)
In Figure 3.2 and Figure 3.3, the average number of days with temperatures warmer than or equal to 90°F and equal to or cooler than 32°F are shown. Excessively hot days are rare at higher elevations but are common in the Bighorn Basin and eastern plains (>40 days). Days with freezing temperatures or colder exceed 228 days in the mountains but only about half that amount over portions of the eastern plains and central river basins.
Table 3.A. Wyoming temperature records (° F)
12 Jul 1900
-66 / -63
9 Feb 1933
Riverside R.S. (under Review) -63F at Moran 5WNW is the next lowest
Highest AverageAnnual Temp
Lingle 2 S
Lowest AverageAnnual Temp
Consecutive DaysMax >= 90
Consecutive DaysMin <= 32
Oct 67-Jul 68
Table 3.B. Wyoming monthly record temperatures (° F)
-66 / -63
Riverside RS (Under Review) / Moran 5WNW
Snake River YNP
Fountain Hotel YNP
Soda Butte YNP
(* = on more than one occasion)
3.2 Heat Stress Index
Heat Stress Index is defined as the combination of high temperature and humidity that humans can physically tolerate.In the US, extreme heat may have a greaterimpact on human health (Kalkstein and Davis, 1989), especially among the elderly(Changnon et al., 1996), than any other type of severe weather. The combined effects oftemperature and humidity cannot be directly measured but can be assessed by a calculationof an "apparent temperature" (A).
Ignoring wind effects, one can estimate apparent temperature as:
where T is ambient air temperature (°C), e is water vapor pressure (kPa) (Steadman, 1984).16
Figure 3.4. NOAA's Heat Index table
The apparent temperature of "how hot it feels" should not be confused with the Heat Index17(Figure 3.4) used by NOAA's National Weather Service. Because the latter index is notdefined for temperature below 80°F (27°C) and relative humidity below 40 percent, it is notsuitable for compilation of a climatology. To include values below these limits would be amisuse of the Heat Index, but rejecting those conditions would introduce bias. Thereforeemployment of the Steadman (1984) apparent temperature is used. Table 3.C. shows theheat stress index for five Wyoming cities. For each station, three-hourly July and Augustdata for 1961-1990 were used to determine the 85th percentile values of daily average, dailyminimum, and daily maximum ambient temperature and apparent temperature in °F. The85th percentile values have been shown to be closely correlated with weather-relatedmortality statistics (Kalkstein and Davis, 1989). These conditions are exceeded on averageabout a dozen days during July and August. In several instances, the apparent temperature is lower than the actualtemperature because of very low relative humidity.
Table 3.C. Threshold values of apparent and actual temperatures
HEAT STRESS INDEX(threshold)
Apparent T thresholds (° F)
Actual T thresholds (° F)
avg, max, min
avg, max, min
71.0, 83.2, 59.6
72.4, 86.6, 59.6
73.3, 85.7, 62.1
75.5, 89.5, 63.0
69.0, 81.6, 57.5
71.7, 85.9, 58.3
74.6, 88.7, 61.0
76.0, 92.1, 60.9
73.5, 86.7, 60.7
75.5, 90.8, 60.7
3.3 Growing Season
Early freezes in the fall and late freezes in the spring are typical in Wyoming. This resultsin long winters and short growing seasons. Wyoming is in a region of the Country wherefrequent variations from cold to mild periods, especially in the fall and spring occur. Theaverage growing season (freeze-free period) for the principle agricultural areas isapproximately 125 days (Figure 3.5).
For hardier plants which can stand a temperature of 28°F or slightly lower the growingseason in the agricultural areas east of the Divide is approximately 145 days.18
Figure 3.5. Mean number of annual frost free days in Wyoming (PRISM, 1961-90)
In the mountains and high valleys freezing temperatures may occur any time during thesummer. For tender plants there is practically no growing season in such areas as the upperGreen River Valley, Star Valley and Jackson Hole. Sandy Creek a tributaryof the Green River near Farson, has an average of 42 days between the last temperature of 32°F in earlysummer and the first freeze in late summer. For the places like Star Valley and Jackson Hole,the growing season is even shorter. The earliest and latest expectedfreezing dates across Wyoming are shown in Figure 3.6 and Figure 3.7.
Figure 3.6. Earliest expected freezing date in Julian Days19,20 (PRISM, 1961-90)
Figure 3.7. Latest expected freezing date in Julian Days (PRISM, 1961-90)
Temperatures that cause freezing injury to winter wheat at differentgrowth stages is shown in Figure 3.7a. Winter wheat rapidly loseshardiness during spring growth and is easily injured by late freezes. Snow cover helps to protect (insulate) plants when temperatures fallbelow certain thresholds. Winter wheat is grown primarily overnortheast and southeast Wyoming.
Figure 3.7a. Wheat resistance to freeze injury (courtesy, AGExperimental Station & Cooperative Extension Services, Kansas StateUniversity, Manhattan, KA; adapted from A.W. Pauli)
3.4 Growing Degree Day
AgriMet uses an agronomically accepted algorithm for computing growing degree days thatprovides a means of evaluating the progress of the growing season.
The formula is essentially:
(Max Air Temp + Min Air Temp) / 2 - Base Temperature (50°F)
where Max Air Temp is capped at 86°F and Min Air Temp is capped at 50°F.
Temperatures above 86°F are not always beneficial to plant growth (and can be stressful)while temperatures below 50°F do not "detract" from any heat energy available to the plant.Let's take an example where the Max Air Temp is 90°F for the day and the Min Air Tempis 45°F. Since these values are outside of the upper and lower limits, they are reset to 86°Fand 50°F.
GDD = (86 +50) / 2 - 50 = 18
To understand how to plan for a typical growing season it is important to consider when the50% threshold for frost occurs (32°F, moderate freeze 28°F, or hard freeze,24°F). In Figure 3.8, Figure 3.9, and Figure 3.10, the probability of when specific temperatures can be expected is provided. More stations are available in the accompanying CD.21
Figure 3.8. Probabilities for critical late spring temperature thresholds that have a negative impact on agriculture (Jackson, WY)
Figure 3.9. Probabilities for critical early fall temperature thresholds that have a negative impact on agriculture (Jackson, WY)
Figure 3.10. Probabilities of how long the growing season is based on critical temperaturethresholds (Jackson, WY)
3.5 Plant Hardiness
Figure 3.11 shows some of the typical plants that can survive in Wyoming. While this hardiness mapis based on expected minimum winter temperatures, consideration should also be given toannual and seasonal precipitation totals. It should be noted that an updated version of thismap22 reflecting recent warming during the past two decades is currently under review by the US Department of Agriculture.
Figure 3.11. USDA Plant Hardiness Map of Wyoming
3.6 Annual Degree Days to Selected Bases23
Table 3.D. presents the annual heating degree day normals to the following bases: 65,60, 57, 55, 50, 45, and 40°F, and annual cooling degree day normals to the following bases: 70, 65, 60, 57, 55, 50, and 45°F.
These values were computed in NCDC Climatography of the United States, number 81.More stations areavailable in the companion CD.24
Table 3.D. Annual Degree Days to Selected Bases (1971-2000)
3.6.1 Maximum Heating Degree Days (Base 65)
The most familar heating degree days (HDD) base used is 65°F. During the period from 1961-1990, the maximum expected HDD is shown in Figure 3.12. Although these valuesrepresent the expected coldest annual average temperature, it should not be inferred that alllocations across Wyoming experience the coldest year during the same year.
3.6.2 Maximum Cooling Degree Days (Base 65)
In Figure 3.13, the maximum cooling degree days (CDD) for Wyoming is shown. Clearly,the state is divided by a line roughly from the northwest to the southeast.
Higher terrain results in fewer days that require air conditioning. Lower elevations such asin the Bighorn, Lower North Platte, Powder-Tongue, Belle Fourche, and Cheyenne RiverBasins are considerably hotter. As with Figure 3.12, not all locations experience the hottestsummer in the same year.
Figure 3.12. Wyoming maximum annual heating degree days (PRISM, 1961-90)
Figure 3.13. Wyoming maximum annual cooling degree days (PRISM, 1961-90)
3.7 Temperature Data
Temperature data can be viewed and used in many ways. For statewide data where weatherstations are unavailable, the high resolution PRISM25 data provides a good means forestimating actual climatology. In Figure 3.14 and Figure 3.15, the record annual minimum and maximum temperatures are shown. In Figure 3.16, dailymaximum and minimum temperatures for Wheatland are based on frequency of occurrence throughout theyear. This can give one an overview of how often certain temperatures could be expected. Note that nearly 9% of the time, maximum temperatures have exceeded 100°Fwhile minimums have exceeded 70°F more than 3%. However, more detail isprovided in Figure 3.17 by showing the frequency of average weekly temperatures forspecific weeks throughout the year.
For example, during the hottest period in July, between 30-40% of the time, theaverage temperature is between 74°F and 77°F, but less than 10% of the time falls below68°F. Finally, in Figure 3.18, the daily mean maximum, mean minimum, and extremes (records) provideyet another way to summarize a station's temperature climatology. More stations areavailable in the accompanying CD.26
Figure 3.14. Annual record minimum daily temperature in Wyoming (PRISM, 1961-90)
Figure 3.15. Annual record maximum daily temperature in Wyoming (PRISM, 1961-90)
Figure 3.16. Maximum and minimum daily temperature occurrences based on 10° F bins forWheatland 4 N
Figure 3.17. Frequency of weekly average temperatures for Wheatland 4 N (1915-2002)
Figure 3.18. Average daily maximum, minimum, and extreme temperatures for Wheatland 4N
3.8 Hourly Temperatures
The number of stations reporting hourly weather are increasing over time. Currently thestations in Wyoming officially accepted by the National Climatic Data Center are Casper, Cheyenne, Lander, Sheridan, and 15 other ASOS. WYDOT highway locations report at 15 to 20minute intervals but these stations are not reliably continuous, routinely calibrated orproperly sheltered from the elements. However, these stations nonetheless provide avaluable resource in regions of sparce weather data.
3.8.1 Actual Daily Average Temperatures?
When using hourly data, interesting climatological quirks can be found. For example, byconvention, average daily temperatures are based on the maximum plus the minimumdivided by two. This convention may not accurately reflect the actual consumptionof power required to heat or cool homes or businesses. By taking hourlytemperatures each day and dividing by 24, the results show that the average annualtemperature is actually 0.7°F cooler in Lander from 1961-1990 (Figure 3.19) than by taking theaverage from daily highs and lows.
Casper showed -0.5°F annual difference, Cheyenne showed -0.1°F difference, and Sheridanshowed a +0.4°F difference. Despite these differences, taking the average from daily maximumand minimum temperatures does approximate the continuous running temperature averagefor most given days. Yet, perhaps this procedure could be used to filter out any globalwarming signature trends caused by changing cloud cover or land use changes.
Figure 3.19. Lander's average monthly temperatures calculated hourly and from daily maximum and minimum, 1961-90
Figure 3.20, Figure 3.22, Figure 3.24, and Figure 3.26 show contoured charts of hourlyaverage temperatures as a function of hour of day and month for Casper, Cheyenne, Lander,and Sheridan from 1961-1990. In Figure 3.21, Figure 3.23, Figure 3.25, and Figure 3.27,the monthly frequency of temperatures for the same stations show two or three periods ofmaximum frequencies (usually in the spring and fall with temperatures just above freezingand in the summer with temperatures in the mid 60s).
3.8.2 Temperature Changes (hourly & daily)
When examining hourly temperature changes at six year intervals from 1961-1995 (1990is an overlapping year in this study), it is interesting to note that the most commontemperature change actually fell within +/-1.8°F (Figure 3.28 to Figure 3.31).
Also, one would expect a normal bell shape curve distribution centered on 0°F (+/-1.8°F) hr-1but is actually skewed towards hourly warming. This result suggests that at night whentemperatures fall and the relative humidity increases, temperature change becomes more conservative.
Figure 3.20. Average hourly temperature as a function of month and hour of the day at Casper (1961-1990). Numerical values are the minimum and maximum hourly averages in a year
Figure 3.21. Casper monthly temperature frequency based on hourly observations from 1961-1990
Figure 3.22. Same as Figure 3.20 except for Cheyenne
Figure 3.23. Same as Figure 3.21 except for Cheyenne
Figure 3.24. Same as Figure 3.20 except for Lander
Figure 3.25. Same as Figure 3.21 except for Lander
Figure 3.26. Same as Figure 3.20except for Sheridan
Figure 3.27. Same as Figure 3.21except for Sheridan
Figure 3.28. Casper hourly temperature changes based on six year intervals from 1961-1995. Temperature changes exceeding +/- 12.6° F in an hour occurred only 187 hours in 35 years.
Figure 3.29. Same as Figure 3.28 except for Cheyenne. Temperature changes exceeding +/- 12.6° F in an houroccurred only 288 hours in 35 years.
Figure 3.30. Same as Figure 3.28 except for Lander. Temperature changes exceeding +/- 12.6° F in hour occurred only 151 hours in 35 years.
Figure 3.31. Same as Figure 3.28except for Sheridan. Temperature changes exceeding +/- 12.6° F in an hour occurred only 267 hours in 35 years.
In Table 3.E., extreme hourly temperature changes for six year periods (1990 duplicated inthis study) show that, except for the 1967-72 period when the absolute hourlyextremes were relatively small, most periods show significant rapid warming and coolingin excess of 20°F. Rapid cooling was related to cold front passages in winter or afternoonthunderstorms in summer. Rapid warming was related to either a warm front passage, rapidincrease in winds that helped scour out cold dense pockets of air in winter, or down slopecompressional heating (chinook winds). Potential applications for this type of data involvedelicate electronics at remote sites or at communication relay stations. For example, rapidchanges in atmospheric density can cause unwanted refraction of laser or radar frequencies.
Table 3.E. Extreme hourly temperature changes (°F) for Wyoming's four First Class Weather Stations
When examining diurnal (daily) average temperature changes, the chance for temperaturesexceeding +/- 10.0°F varied between 1% and 19% of the time depending on thestation and time of year (Table 3.F.) In Table 3.F., daily temperatures taken from 1948-1997 (1950-1997 for Casper) show the percent of occurrence when these criteria are met.
Table 3.F. Percent frequency by month when average daily temperature changes exceed +/- 10.0°F
In recent years, two of the greatest 24-hour average temperature changes occurred betweenJanuary 31 and February 1, 1989 when the average temperature dropped from +46°F to -5°Fat Lander, and nearly 11 months later on December 22nd to 23rd when the averagetemperature rose from -15°F to +33°F at Sheridan. However, these changes pale incomparison when one looks at actual temperature changes within the same day and within48 hours. For example, for the period from 1915 through 2001, Cheyenne had 15 days whenthe day's maximum minus the minimum was at least 50°F. On November 11, 1959, themaximum temperature was +56°F and the minimum was -5°F. However, looking at dayone's maximum to day two's minimum, the temperature dropped from +51°F to -20°F betweenFebrurary 5th to 6th in 1933. A remarkable +75° F temperature rise occurred from day one'sminimum to day two's maximum between December 22nd to 23rd in 1989 when thetemperature changed from -28°F to +47°F. In about 31,500 days, there were 126 days whenthe temperature dropped at least 50°F and 167 days when the temperature rose at least 50°Fwithin 48 hours in Cheyenne.
3.9 Temperature vs. Altitude
As described above in the general description of Wyoming's temperature, an increase inelevation will result in cooler summer daytime maximum temperatures. In Figure 3.32, thereis a strong correlation between temperatures above 89°F and elevation and lesser so withtemperatures below 10°F. The outlier shown is Buffalo Bill Dam, which is probably the result ofthe terrain and close proximity to the cooler reservoir waters.
Figure 3.32. Station altitude vs. frequency of extreme temperatures based on 1961-90weekly temperatures
3.10 Temperature vs. Wind Direction
It should come as no surprise that when winds blow from the south some warming can beexpected. Similarly, when the winds are from the north, things should be cooler. InFigure 3.33, this is clearly illustrated. Despite the fact that Casper's prevailing winds arefrom the southwest, and a wide range of temperatures could therefore be expected, thehighest and lowest temperatures are indeed attributable to advection of warm and coldwinds, respectively. However, when downslope winds occur, warming can be expectedregardless of the wind direction. These chinook winds can occur on the leeward side of the BigHorn, Wind River, and Teton Ranges.
Figure 3.33. Annual frequency of temperature as a function of wind direction (%) for Casper(1982-1991)
3.11 Subsurface Temperatures
Realtime Data pertaining to subsurface temperatures are limited to Afton (USBR, AGRIMET)27 located on theIdaho border between the Snake and Bear Rivers, and the Torrington Experimental Farm (NRCS, SCAN)28 station located nearthe Nebraska border in Goshen County. Other stations, such as Archer, WSO Casper, Gillete, Powell, and Wheatland, provide daily data to the Wyoming Climate Office after the end of each month. 28a
Seed germination and plant growth in response to surface and subsurface soil temperatureis important for determining potential yield (biomass). In Figure 3.34 Afton's 2-, 4-, and 8-inch depth average soil temperatures from 1992-2002 show little temperature differencebetween daily maximum and minimum temperatures during the cooler season, and warmertemperatures at shallower depths in the warmer season.
Figure 3.34. Afton, average monthly subsurface maximum and minimum temperatures for2-, 4-, and 8-inch depth)
Figure 3.35. Afton 2-, 4- and 8-inch monthly average temperature differences between daily maximum and minimum
Also note that shallower depths have larger daily average temperature differences as wouldbe expected due to the topsoil acting like a black body to the incoming solar radiation. Thisis illustrated in Figure 3.35. Note the large jump in temperature differences in April.
The temperature record from Torrington Experimental Farm (Figure 3.36) reveals that inthe winter, warmer temperatures are experienced at depth while the reverse occurs in the summer. Also note that the deeper levels lag in response time to changing temperatures at the surface. Of course, the degree to which this happens is dependent on soil type, moisture content, andexposure. In March and April the temperature difference between one and 72-inch depths isabout 5°F. However in November and December this range increases to 20°F.
Figure 3.36. Torrington mean monthly subsurface temperatures. The 1-, 4-, 20-, and 40-inchdepths are based on an average of 25 years (1969-2000). The 2.25-, 8-, and 72-inch depthsare based on an average of 14 years during this same period of operation.
Additional Temperature References
Changnon, S.A., K.E. Kunkel and B.C. Reinke, 1996: Impacts and responses to the1995 heat wave: A call to action. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 1497-1506.
Gaffen, D.J., and R.J. Ross, 1998: Increased Summertime Heat Stress in the U.S. Nature, 396, 529-530.
Gaffen, D.J., and R.J. Ross, 1999: Climatology and Trends of U.S. Surface Humidityand Temperature. J. Climate, 12, 811-828.
Kalkstein, L.S., and R.E. Davis, 1989: Weather and human mortality: An evaluationof demographic and inter-regional responses in the U.S. ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr., 79,44-64.
NREL, 1992: User's Manual - National Solar Radiation Data Base (1961 - 1990), Version 1.0. NSRDB Vol. 1, 93pp.
Steadman, R.G., 1984: A universal scale of apparent temperature. J. Climate Appl.Meteor., 23, 1674-1282.
19#.Julian Day conversion, see: http://blightcast.coafes.umn.edu/JulianDay.htm
20#."Julian Days" are numbered from January 1 (day 1) to December 31 (day 365 or 366 depending on leap years) each day is incremently numbered from the first day. For example January 31 would be day31, while April 1 would be day 91 in a non-leap year, and day 92 in a leap year.
21#.CD: temperature, text, appendix_data, period_of_record, appendix_supplement_datafolders
22#.see CD: Temperature, Misc, USDA_Map_3.03 (pdf version)
24#.CD: appendix_data, normals_71_00, monthly_wy folders
26#.CD: temperature folder
28a#.Available on pages 17-19 of the NCDC Annual Climatological Data publication. Free to .edu and .gov organizations.
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