Safety devices in MotoGP: airbags, helmets, boots and other gear (2023)

Every form of motorsport comes with its own set of dangers, although few are quite as risky as motorcycle racing. Unlike in Formula 1 or IndyCar, riders in MotoGP are completely exposed on the race track, with no survival shell or halo to provide protection in the event of a crash.

Nowhere was this more evident than at the Austrian Grand Prix in August 2020, when a collision between Franco Morbidelli and Johann Zarco in the run up to Turn 3 saw the pair flung into the gravel at high speed. Meanwhile their bikes nearly took out Valentino Rossi and Maverick Vinales, who avoided serious injury by the narrowest of margins.

Given the risks, every aspect of a rider’s attire has been designed to give them as much protection as possible. While there’s no accounting for every single type of accident, the measures employed in MotoGP could be the difference between life and death.

Safety devices in MotoGP: airbags, helmets, boots and other gear (1)

Helmet of Johann Zarco, Pramac Racing

Photo by: Gold and Goose / Motorsport Images


In 2019, the FIM (Federation Internationale de Motocyclisme) introduced new rules which meant riders’ helmets had to be homologated to FIM standards. This was done in order to improve the levels of protection against brain injuries that could result from heavy impacts.

First, helmet manufacturers must make sure that their helmets conform to one of three internationally recognised standards: ECE in Europe, JIS in Japan and Snell in the USA. Only then can they apply for FIM approval.

The FIM’s testing is more stringent, and includes an oblique impact test where helmets are dropped onto a 45° anvil at different speeds to measure absorption levels. The impact surface is covered with sandpaper to mimic the friction in asphalt, and the helmets house a silicone model of a human head to make the test as representative as possible.

The FIM requires that 10 helmets of every size a manufacturer makes are submitted for testing, with homologation given to each individual size. Once approved, helmets sport a QR code that links to a web page containing information about the make of helmet, and a separate sticker that confirms the FIM standard has been met.

The materials used to construct a helmet can vary, with some formed from a carbon fibre composite and others using a mix of fibreglass, Kevlar and resin. The latter method sees the materials pushed into a mould, after which the visor space is cut out using a laser. The maker of the helmet then signs the inside, and two more people are required to check the thickness and weight of the helmet shell.

The next layer is made from Styrofoam. Unlike the stuff you might find in a package with fragile contents, this is much more high-tech with different densities in the structure depending on which areas of the head need outright protection or absorption qualities.

Then there’s the helmet inner: along with the cheek pads, this is removable so it can be washed, and riders can have them tailored for a snug, comfortable fit that accounts for their head shape.

Ventilation features are also built into each helmet to draw away sweat, and a fluid system lets riders drink while they’re racing. Riders usually have three or four helmets with them during a race weekend, so there are plenty of spares if one sustains damage.

Safety devices in MotoGP: airbags, helmets, boots and other gear (2)

Fabio Quartararo, Yamaha Factory Racing

(Video) Wear A Helmet And Airbag Suit Also|That's Safe For You 🙂#shorts #motogp #superbike #safety #crush

Photo by: Gold and Goose / Motorsport Images


Race helmets wouldn’t be complete without a visor, and like the outer shell these have to be extremely tough to protect riders from flying debris. If dirt builds up on the visor to the point that seeing the track becomes difficult, tear-off strips can be removed quickly during a race to get rid of any grime.

The visors are made from a material that doesn’t crack or fracture, so high-speed projectiles don’t pose a risk to a rider’s vision. They can also be covered with an anti-fog coating that prevents condensation from building up in cold conditions.

Riders rarely use completely clear visors, with most opting for a tint that reduces glare. Some visors are rose tinted on the inside which allows riders to pick out features in the asphalt more easily, boosting their performance and reducing the chance of striking debris.

Special visors are deployed when it rains. These are double glazed to prevent fogging, and a rubber seal around the edge of the visor stops rainwater seeping into the helmet.

Safety devices in MotoGP: airbags, helmets, boots and other gear (3)

Luca Marini, Esponsorama Racing, Valentino Rossi, Petronas Yamaha SRT, Franco Morbidelli, Petronas Yamaha SRT, Francesco Bagnaia, Ducati Team

Photo by: Gold and Goose / Motorsport Images

Race suits/Leathers

Modern race suits are sophisticated pieces of equipment, and in MotoGP they are tailored to each rider in order to achieve the best fit for every individual. This is to maximise comfort in the aggressive position riders adopt on the bike.

The leather panels - often derived from kangaroo skin or cowhide - are stitched together by hand, with each suit taking many hours to complete. They tend to weigh several kilos, unlike the lightweight, fireproof overalls used in F1.

Leather was widely used in bike racing suits as long ago as the 1950s, although the complexity of the designs has increased dramatically since then. There are many reasons why leather became the material of choice, although its ability to resist abrasion is the main quality behind its continued use today.

Stretchy, accordion-like panelling in the knee, lower back and underarm areas gives riders crucial freedom of movement throughout, and allows the blood to circulate freely. There’s an inner lining that can be washed and removed, and suits designed with ventilation in mind so that air flows in at the front and out the back, removing moisture and keeping riders cool in hot climates.

The hump at the back is one of the most prominent features of any motorcycle racing suit. Initially introduced to improve airflow and increase a bike’s top speed, the hump has since been used to house drinking water, cooling ducts and electronics.

Elsewhere, some riders like to line the inside legs of their suits with a grippy, silicone material: this makes it easier to cling on to the body of the bike, and in turn can boost the amount of control they have over it.

In addition to all these features, the latest race suits have a number of additional safety devices woven in to keep drivers safe.

(Video) Race Suit History | EXPLAINED

Safety devices in MotoGP: airbags, helmets, boots and other gear (4)

Jack Miller, Pramac Racing crash

Photo by: Gold and Goose / Motorsport Images


The most complex of these is the airbag, which has been used in MotoGP for years but finally became mandatory in 2018. It is positioned around the back, shoulders and rib cage inside the suit, and is designed to absorb the forces endured by riders when they fall off their bikes.

Race suits are fitted with accelerometers, gyroscopes and a GPS, and the airbag is activated when sensors detect that a fall has occurred. The software is very clever and can tell the difference between a genuine incident and a near miss, so inflation doesn’t occur at random.

Two gas canisters are secreted inside the suit, and when the system detects a fall the chambers of the airbag fully inflate in just 25 milliseconds; about a quarter of the time it takes to blink. They stay inflated for around five seconds, by which time a rider will usually have come to a stop.

Modern airbag systems are different to early models in that they act completely independently of the bike itself. Early versions of the technology featured a cord attached to the body of the bike, in much the same way as the emergency stop mechanism on a treadmill. When a rider fell, the cord would be pulled and the system activated.

Safety devices in MotoGP: airbags, helmets, boots and other gear (5)

Franco Morbidelli, Petronas Yamaha SRT

Photo by: Gold and Goose / Motorsport Images


Leather alone isn’t enough to protect a rider’s body in a crash, and so the most vulnerable areas are reinforced with armour designed to soak up blows and spread the force of impacts.

The elbows, shoulders, knees and hips get the most attention in this respect, but race suits have pockets inside in which to hold protective inserts. These need to be lightweight and flexible so they don’t impede a rider’s position on the bike or lead to discomfort.

Safety devices in MotoGP: airbags, helmets, boots and other gear (6)

Gloves of Marc Marquez, Repsol Honda Team

Photo by: Repsol Media


Gloves are also made out of leather, and must overlap a rider’s race suit by at least 50mm. A secure fastening system is a must too so they aren’t ripped off if a rider is thrown across the asphalt.

Protective plating in the palm and wrist is common, and the knuckles are usually reinforced as well; an element that often provides some aerodynamic benefits. The little finger and ring finger in each glove are usually tethered to one another to limit the chance of injuring the former.

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On the palm side of the glove, the leather used in the fingers tends to be thinner than in any other area: this is to avoid impairing a rider’s feel for the brake levers, which in itself is a key safety consideration.

Safety devices in MotoGP: airbags, helmets, boots and other gear (7)

Alex Rins, Team Suzuki MotoGP Qatar

Photo by: Gold and Goose / Motorsport Images

Knee and elbow sliders

Knee sliders started to appear in the 1970s as wider tyres forced riders into more aggressive cornering styles. The earliest attempts at fashioning this were as makeshift as you can imagine, with duct tape, wood and even pieces of visor strapped to riders’ knees in an effort to bolster the level of protection in that area.

After years of development, manufacturers eventually settled on a plastic compound design that strikes the right balance between friction and wear, giving riders enough feel in corners but proving durable enough to last at least a race distance. Usage varies from rider to rider, with some sliders being used for days on end.

Knee sliders are incorporated into a rider’s race suit, and are normally positioned towards the outside of the knee rather than directly on the front. However, riders can tailor the positioning of the slider to their needs depending on the conditions and speeds on track.

Around the turn of the century MotoGP began to see riders adopt an elbow-down racing style, with Jean-Philippe Ruggia and Max Biaggi among the first to do it. This meant elbow sliders had to be developed, and they’re now a common sight on modern race suits. Different riders have different sized elbow sliders depending on their riding style, with some even incorporating metal plates for added durability.

The rules state that knee and elbow sliders mustn’t create sparks or smoke, or leave debris on track. This prevents riders’ vision being impaired while racing.

Safety devices in MotoGP: airbags, helmets, boots and other gear (8)

Polesitter Marc Marquez, Repsol Honda Team with Mick Doohan boots and gloves

Photo by: Gold and Goose / Motorsport Images


Modern racing boots have evolved over the years into one of the most thoroughly engineered pieces of safety gear that riders wear. These days they comprise an inner boot and outer shell: the former is surrounded by a type of exoskeleton, which gives added protection to the heel and ankle in particular. The two areas are joined together by a part that allows for some freedom of movement, but which prevents excessive flexing in the event of an accident. Foam is incorporated too to spread the force of any impact and reduce the chance of broken bones.

Meanwhile, the outer shell is typically finished in leather, with yet more panelling to guard the heel and ankle. A rider’s race suit has to overlap the boot by at least 70mm, and the fastening method used should prevent the boot from coming off in a crash. The sole is perhaps the fastest-wearing part of the entire ensemble, as it needs to be thin enough to give riders perfect feel for the foot pegs while riding. On the inside of the outer shell, a thin reflective surface helps limit any transfer of heat caused by friction between the pegs and boots, reducing the risk of developing painful blisters.

Some riders like to include toe sliders into the outer shell, although this is really down to individual preference and riding style.

Safety devices in MotoGP: airbags, helmets, boots and other gear (9)

Brad Binder, Red Bull KTM Factory Racing

(Video) Alpinestars MotoGP Protective Gear explained

Photo by: Gold and Goose / Motorsport Images

Back protectors

The back protector was first used by Barry Sheene in 1979, created by Australian designer Marc Sadler and inspired by lobsters and armadillos.

Fast forward 40 years and modern back protectors have come on leaps and bounds. Ergonomically designed to fit the contours of a rider’s back, an aluminium core usually adopts a honeycomb structure to absorb the force of impacts. A larger surface area will offer more protection, but the priority is to support the spine above all else.

Modern back protectors have moving panels that allow riders to move reasonably freely on their bikes. Ventilation prevents a build-up of moisture and keeps riders cool even in hot conditions.

The most advanced back protectors are sewn into an underlayer shirt that brings the airbag and electronics into a single garment that can be worn comfortably under a race suit. The less bulky the better, as a slimmer package allows for better aerodynamics and higher speeds.

Safety devices in MotoGP: airbags, helmets, boots and other gear (10)

Valentino Rossi, Petronas Yamaha SRT

Photo by: Gold and Goose / Motorsport Images

Chest protectors

Chest protectors are mandatory in MotoGP, and must cover a surface area measuring at least 230cm². Single and divided chest protectors are allowed, and some are made from a high-tech foam that helps absorb impacts caused by debris or in a fall. They simply slip into the race suit and are barely noticeable when fully zipped up.

Some chest protectors are more akin to the rigid back protectors, with honeycomb structure providing more substantial impact protection. They’re better ventilated too, although there’s more transfer of vibration through the tank of the bike while racing.


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What safety features does MotoGP have? ›

MotoGP riders' gear incorporates numerous protective elements, including protective pieces in the suits, knee sliders and elbow pads, an airbag, and a helmet. After all, safety is the number one priority. One of the determining factors when choosing riders' protective equipment is the weather.

What airbags do MotoGP riders use? ›

Like the vast majority of top-of-the-line riding gear, the D and Tech-Air systems were initially developed and used in MotoGP before eventually being adapted for use on the street. For this reason, both Alpinestars and Dainese offer street and race airbag systems that differ from each other in numerous of ways.

What helmets do MotoGP use? ›

Pista GP RR, the helmet used by MotoGP™ riders, demonstrates AGV's obsession for perfection. It offers protection, wide visual field and aerodynamics studied to make it weightless at high speed.

Do MotoGP riders have airbag suits? ›

It is positioned around the back, shoulders and rib cage inside the suit, and is designed to absorb the forces endured by riders when they fall off their bikes. Race suits are fitted with accelerometers, gyroscopes and a GPS, and the airbag is activated when sensors detect that a fall has occurred.

How many sensors does a MotoGP bike have? ›

Thirty analog sensors join with four temperature monitors, exhaust oxygen level (lambda), and a host of other digital sensors. ECU control and datalogging can get to be a busy affair.

How do MotoGP riders airbags work? ›

If there's a crash, the sensor-operated airbag on the torso inflates in a flash, while you're still in flight. For example, the Alpinestars system used by Marc Márquez is fully inflated in 25 milliseconds, so well before the rider makes any contact with the ground.

Why do MotoGP riders dangle a leg? ›

There are mainly three reasons why MotoGP riders put their leg out during a braking section: to increase air resistance, to make it easier to enter a corner, and to prevent an inside overtake by a rival. A fairly new riding technique, introduced by Valentino Rossi, that everyone is now adopting.

How do MotoGP riders stay safe? ›

MotoGP riders need more than just a motorcycle for a race. They need specially designed suits, boots, and gloves. Many protective elements go into making these highly protective racing gears such as knee sliders, elbow pads, etc.

Why is Kawasaki not allowed in MotoGP? ›

Winners of eight WorldSBK championships since the series began in 1988, six of which have come in the hands of Jonathan Rea, Kawasaki chose to leave MotoGP in 2009 due to financial reasons.

Do airbag vests work? ›

Statistics indicate that forward momentum in a crash is reduced by roughly 60 percent for the rider in an airbag vest or jacket, and head trauma is reduced by approximately 80 percent.

Do MotoGP bikes have gears? ›

Like regular street bikes, MotoGP bikes have gears, and riders can switch between them using a foot lever. However, some variations in the gearbox design and the gears' arrangement on MotoGP bikes help the rider change gears smoothly to achieve peak performance.

What is the best MotoGP helmet? ›

The best Arai motorcycle helmet is the Arai RX-7V Evo, the helmet model used by MotoGP or Superbike riders.

What is the most used helmet brand in MotoGP? ›

MotoGP machines often top 200 mph, and safety is paramount. It's no wonder top riders choose to wear Arai helmets.

How much is a MotoGP helmet? ›

MotoGP Helmets at Rs 23000 | Helmets in Mumbai | ID: 8832607433.

What's inside a MotoGP suit? ›

In most cases we use cowhide, but we do use kangaroo as well. Bovine is used mostly though because it is very wear resistant, and it's usually between 1.2 and 1.4 millimetres thick.

Are MotoGP suits fireproof? ›

The suits are not entirely fireproof, but rather fire retardant for a period of time, allowing an individual to escape an incident or be rescued with minimal injury.

What do MotoGP riders wear under their leathers? ›

It is best to wear moisture-wicking undergarments to draw moisture away from your body and keep your entire body nice and cool. Although there are moisture-wicking undersuits explicitly designed to be worn underneath your racing leathers, these specialized garments can get rather pricey.

What sensors does a MotoGP bike have? ›

MotoGP bikes have a battery of electronic sensors that measure various parameters on the bike: accelerometers measure the forces exerted through corners, and engine and wheel sensors monitor engine speed, wheel speed, and throttle position among other variables.

What are the red yellow and green buttons on a MotoGP bike? ›

Looking at the Pramac Ducati the colours of the buttons are as follows: Yellow adjusts the Fuel usage, Blue controls the launch or traction control, Red adjusts the Engine Power Programme and Green is for the Engine Brakes.

What electronics do the MotoGP bikes have? ›

GPS tracks the precise position of the bike as it travels round the track; gyroscopes monitor its attitude; accelerometers measure the forces being exerted through corners; and a range of engine and wheel sensors monitor wheel speed, engine speed, throttle position and a multitude of other parameters.

How do MotoGP ride height devices work? ›

A ride height device is used by MotoGP riders to compress the rear suspension of the motorcycle and therefore lowering the centre of gravity and providing better acceleration as the chance of wheelies is reduced.

How painful is an airbag? ›

The force of the airbag being deployed can damage your jaw, nose and eyes. Broken bones in the face and permanent scarring can be the result of airbag deployment. In some cases, eye injuries were severe enough to result in temporary or permanent blindness.

Do airbags go off when you get t boned? ›

For example, if you are t-boned at high speed the side airbag should deploy in the effort of protecting your passenger's heads from hitting the nearby window on that side of the vehicle.

What does 2 fingers down motorcycle? ›

What Does It Mean When Bikers Point Two Fingers Down? This is the question that non-bikers ask me the most. If you're a non-biker and you're reading this post, it's simply a way for bikers to say hello to each other. In days gone by, 'the point' was a reciprocal biker sign of respect.

Why do bikers put their knee down? ›

This is helps to slow the bike and it allows the upper body to absorb some of the force generated under hard braking. Because the knee is out during the braking phase, there will also be a minute amount more drag on that side of the rider.

Why do MotoGP riders shift opposite? ›

The biggest benefit to a reverse shift pattern on the track is that upshifts are easier to make while you're still hung off the bike exiting a corner. This applies to both left- and right-hand corners, though for different reasons.

Where do MotoGP riders sleep? ›

GP rooms, as they are known in the paddock, could be defined as houses on wheels where some of the riders stay during a Grand Prix. The manager of these trucks in the World Championship is "Gelete" Nieto. We spoke with him to learn what these rooms are like on the inside. Is a GP room a mobile space?

What tire pressure do MotoGP riders use? ›

MotoGP's minimum limit is 1.9 bar (27.6psi) for front slicks and 1.7 bar (24.6psi) for rears. Any lower and you are breaking the rules, just the same as if you're running an oversized fuel tank or bypassing software locks in MotoGP's spec electronics system.

How far can a MotoGP bike lean? ›

In fact, MotoGP bikes–which have the most ground clearance and use tires with the most grip on the world's smoothest racetracks–produce 65 degrees of lean angle. That's a full 45 degrees of additional lean beyond the 20 degrees at which human beings are comfortable leaning in turns.

Why is Suzuki leaving MotoGP? ›

Why is Suzuki leaving MotoGP? Suzuki is leaving the MotoGP Championship due to current global economic conditions and to allocate resources to ensure the health and growth potential of Suzuki's overall business.

Who will replace Suzuki in MotoGP? ›

Leopard in frame to replace Suzuki on 2023 MotoGP grid.

Why is Ducati so fast in MotoGP? ›

Ducati's MotoGP bikes use a special kind of 90-degrees V4 engine. Or better said, special valves. They use desmodromic valves. Those valves were first used by Mercedes in their 1950s Formula 1 engines.

Do airbags work best without seatbelts? ›

One of the most common excuses people give for not wearing a seat belt is that the airbags in their car offer enough protection in an accident. However, they are wrong. Airbags are designed to work in conjunction with seat belts to reduce injuries and deaths.

How tight should a airbag vest be? ›

Low profile vests are meant to fit close to the body. Helite, FreeJump, and Penelope vests should be snug enough so that the canister isn't tipping off of the torso, but should not be ultra tight.

Can you reuse airbag vests? ›

Like our mechanical airbag system, the vest can be reused within a few minutes after a fall. You simply need to replace the e-cartridge.

Do MotoGP bikes have starter motor? ›

MotoGP bikes or motorcycles don't have internal starter motors to reduce weight. This gives them the advantage of a higher power to weight ratio and…

Do MotoGP bikes have rear brakes? ›

MotoGP riders use the rear brake to help stop the bike, to turn the bike, to adjust its attitude, to stabilise the bike and reduce wheelies during acceleration. “The rear brake on a MotoGP bike is important everywhere,” says Tech 3 KTM rider Danilo Petrucci.

Do MotoGP bikes have foot brakes? ›

Thumb-actuated rear brakes are back for 2022.

One choice is an independent thumb lever that actuates the two-piston caliper. The other design uses a thumb brake and foot brake—the rider can use either or both, as they are discrete two-piston systems.

What helmet has the most protection? ›

The full-face helmet is the safest choice of the three. The full-face helmet offers the most coverage surrounding your head and neck. In addition, a full-face helmet protects you from the environment you're riding in, whether it be inclement weather or debris and bugs hitting your visor.

What is the most advanced helmet in the world? ›

Taiwanese company, Jarvish, unveiled their advanced motorcycle helmet dubbed the X-AR, which boasts of a bunch of exciting features, never seen before on helmets. Tomorrow at 06:00PT and 09:00ET we're launching so make sure you're ready to grab your JARVISH X-AR at the lowest price.

What protective gear do MotoGP riders wear? ›

MotoGP riders' gear incorporates numerous protective elements, including protective pieces in the suits, knee sliders and elbow pads, an airbag, and a helmet. After all, safety is the number one priority. One of the determining factors when choosing riders' protective equipment is the weather.

Which company is best for helmet? ›

List of Best Helmet Brands in India for Bike Riders:
  • 1) Vega:
  • 2) Steelbird:
  • 3) Studds:
  • 4) LS2:
  • 5) THH:
  • 6) Wrangler:
  • 7) Royal Enfield:
  • 8) Aerostar:
Oct 14, 2022

Which company bike helmet is best? ›

Since there are hundreds of helmets available in the market, we have tried to make it easy for you by listing the 4 best ones from top brands like Vega, Studds, Steelbird, etc. A helmet is an essential part of the whole riding experience. It is an important safety measure without which you should never ride.

Can you buy an old MotoGP bike? ›

You cannot buy a privateer MotoGP bike dating from 2015 onwards." The MotoGP bikes are particularly important as, since 2015, satellite team MotoGP bikes have been leased to the teams and therefore never come up for sale as they return to the factory once they are done with.

How many HP is a MotoGP bike? ›

Over 250 hp. Over 350 km/h (218 mph).

How fast can a MotoGP bike go mph? ›

220mph and airborne: the Mugello corner that scares MotoGP riders. When Valentino Rossi joined the premier class in 2000 the best top speed was achieved at Mugello (of course) by Garry McCoy and his Red Bull Yamaha YZR500 at 197.5mph/317.8km/h.

Does MotoGP have a safety car? ›

Festival visitors were among the first people able to take a close look at the newest safety car from BMW M, the 'Official Car of MotoGP™' since 1999. The BMW M3 Touring MotoGP™ Safety Car will also make its first race appearance in Great Britain, in early August at the British Grand Prix at Silverstone.

How do MotoGP riders not get hurt? ›

MotoGP riders need more than just a motorcycle for a race. They need specially designed suits, boots, and gloves. Many protective elements go into making these highly protective racing gears such as knee sliders, elbow pads, etc.

Does MotoGP have a safety bike? ›

“Our three new safety cars are based on production models, which deliver outstanding performance and driving dynamics that make them ideally suited to appear in the MotoGP. They will be joined by the new BMW M 1000 RR as the safety bike.
Those M Sport colors look so nice on a bike.
1 more row
Mar 14, 2021

How do MotoGP riders survive crashes? ›

They wear one piece full leather suit that comes with best in class protectors at the major contact/moving parts of the body. From the current season, the race suit is equipped with airbag. This prevents the neck from moving during a crash and also give protection to the chest and the back.


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